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1. All references must be cited within the text.
2. All references must be from peer-reviewed, scholarly journals, and must be not more than 5 years old. A doi # should be available if possible.
3. Be sure to address ALL the parts of each questions!
4. Use the question parts as headers. For example, when answering question 1, part 1, use Part 1 as your header. Use subheaders as needed within each question part.
5. Put the references for each question at the end of that question. Treat each question as a separate paper entirely.
6. DO NOT include a title page, introduction, recommendations, or a conclusion section in any of the questions. I will provide those myself.
Question 1 (5 pages in length, at least 20 references)
Using Gelso (2006), Harlow (2009), Stam, H. (2007, 2010), Wacker (1999), and five additional peer-reviewed articles from your specialization, discuss scholarly views on the nature and types of theory. Compare and contrast at least three views of what constitutes a theory, including the view you will use in Part 3 of this question. Be sure to distinguish theory from related concepts, such as hypothesis, paradigm, model, and concept. **MY SPECIALIZATION IS PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION, WITH AREA OF INTEREST FOCUSING ON 311 MUNICIPAL CALL CENTERS**
Using Ellis & Levy (2008), Harlow, E. (2009), and five additional peer-reviewed articles, review the scholarly literature on the relationship between theory and research and the ways research (quantitative and qualitative) can contribute to theory. Discuss at least three ways research can contribute to theory.
Pick a theory (in one of the views of what constitutes a theory that you identified in Part 1) of current interest directly related to the topic area of your dissertation. A theory is currently of interest if there are articles published on it in the past five years. Using at least 10 published, peer-reviewed research articles:
1. Explain how the theory adds or may add to our understanding of your field and/or research topic.
2. Discuss and analyze the literature on two areas of controversy or unanswered questions related to the theory.
**MAKE SURE THIS ANSWER RELATES BACK TO PART 1**
Ellis, T. & Levy, Y. (2008). Framework of problem-based research: A guide for novice researchers on the development of a research-worthy problem. Informing Science: the International Journal of an Emerging Transdiscipline, 11, 17-33.
Gelso, C. (2006). Applying theories to research: The interplay of theory and research in science. In Leong, F.T., & Austin, J.T. (Eds.), The psychology research handbook. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Harlow, E. (2009). “Contribution, theoretical.” Encyclopedia of Case Study Research.
Stam, H. (2000). Theoretical psychology. The International Handbook of Psychology, SAGE Publications.
Stam, H. (2010). Theory. Encyclopedia of Research Design, SAGE Publications.
Wacker, J. (1998). A definition of theory: Research guidelines for different theory-building research methods in operations management. Journal of Operations Management, 16 (4), 361-385. doi: 10.1016/S0272-6963(98)00019-9.
Other potential references
Lidén, G. (2013). What about theory? the consequences on a widened perspective of social theory. Quality and Quantity,47(1), 213-225. doi:https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11135-011-9512-3.
Oldfield, K. (2010). Using critical theory to teach public administration students about social class inequalities. Administrative Theory & Praxis, 32(3), 450-472. doi:10.2753/ATP1084-1806320312.
Raadschelders, J. C. N., & Lee, K. (2011). Trends in the study of public administration: Empirical and qualitative observations from public administration review, 2000-2009. Public Administration Review, 71(1), 19-33. doi:10.1111/j.1540-6210.2010.02303.x.
Sementelli, A. (2009). Images in public administration: Using popular media to bridge theories and practices. The Journal of Management Development, 28(7), 607-621. doi:https://dx.doi.org/10.1108/02621710910972715.
Sementelli, A. J. (2012). Public service, struggle, and existenz: Mapping the individual. Administrative Theory & Praxis, 34(2), 191-210.
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