MATERIALS Engineering



To the record the nature of different grain sizes formed during the cooling of a cast ingot and study metallographic samples.

Method: Part I

A range of prepared cast ingots will be available for students to handle and study the ingots. In some circumstances, students will be able to watch the demonstration of ingot pouring and preparation. Moulds should be pre-heated to avoid moisture being retained. After solidification and cooling the ingots will be sawn, etched and prepared.

Students should sketch the grain structure and compare the differences in size of the grains, discussing the background of grain formation. Photographing the ingots is acceptable but the photographs MUST be able to clearly show the detail of the crystals. If in doubt, sketch the ingots.

Health & Safety

This laboratory deals with the handling of hazardous materials. Students are required to follow instructions given. The technician will carry out the preparation of the experiment.
Method: Part II

Study the metallographic samples below and briefly comment on any noticeable features. Discuss reasons as to why any features appear.


For part I highlight any features present on the ingots. Label crystals where relevant and discuss the problems associated with casting. Review how these are resolved.

For part II state any features present or structures present. You will need to look up the relevant thermal-equilibrium diagrams when making references to some of the samples.

Summarise the importance of producing correct castings and review the
importance of metallographic examination.

Part 2 photos:


X2 Copper/4% tin alloy, sand cast
X3 Copper/4% tin alloy, sand cast, annealed at 700°C for 2 hours
X4 Copper 52%/48% zinc alloy, sand cast
X5 Copper/8.4% phosphorus, eutectic alloy, sand cast
X6 Copper/4.5% phosphorus, hypo-eutectic alloy, sand cast
X7 Copper/10.5% phosphorus, hyper-eutectic alloy, sand cast
X10 Copper 58%/42% zinc alloy, sand cast
X11 Copper 58%/42% zinc alloy, sand cast (as X10) but reheated to 800°C for 1 hour and then water quenched
X12 Copper 58%/42% zinc alloy, sand cast (as X10) but reheated to 800°C for 1 hour, furnace-cooled to 600°C and then water quenched

Part 1 photos:
1. Brass specimen

1. Brass specimen

1. Brass specimen

2. Copper specimen
2. Copper specimen

3. Antimony specimen

Zinc ingots specimens:

Instructions: (PLEASE ANSWER ALL).
Method Part One
• I want all the parts in the first page above to be done, these are the Objective, Method part 1, Health and safety, Method part 2, Discussion and conclusion

• I want method part one and two questions to be answered all clearly with details please. ( these are below and in the first page)

FOR Method part 1 (Brass, Copper and Antimony):
I want description of 1 or 2 paragraphs for each specimen indicating:
1. What are they?
2. What can you see?
3. Are there Crystals? What are they?
4. Can you see casting defects?
5. What are the sources of grains on the top of the Brass and Copper?
Plus the questions in the in the first page.

FOR Method part 1 (Zinc ingots):
I want all the questions in the first page to be answered. Plus:
1. Why the (100 degree Metal) has higher cooling rate than the 100 degree plaster?
2. Are there grain boundaries?
3. Sketch the grain structure and compare the differences in size of the grains.
4. Any unusual features? Highlight any features present on the ingots. 1-2 paragraphs for each ingot.

Method Part Two

• Relate Phase diagram to the photos of samples in the second page, look at phase diagram and write what should be present
• Couple of paragraphs for microstructure
• Look up the relevant thermal-equilibrium diagrams

• Please answer all the questions above and the questions in the first page
• I want a heading or title to each different paragraph
• The method should be in past tense (what happened in the past)
• I don’t want too much of irrelevant writing, as long as answering the questions
• Maximum amount for discussion is 2 pages
• References must be accurate and must use cross-reference
• Background research

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