Provide a short written response (175-200 words) to four of the following questions. You

must answer at least one from Group 1 and one from Group
2 and you cannot answer two questions from the same
Set (A, B, C, D).
A rubric for evaluating the essays in each group will be provided.
Group 1
Explain why Russell believes that words
and phrases that denote non-existing
objects are misinterpreted. Provide your
own example to clarify your explanation.

Group 2
Russell focuses on denoting words and
phrases because he argues that statements
that include words/phrases denoting nonexistent objects are confused. Explain
what this means and why another
philosopher we have read (Wittgenstein,
Austin, or Ryle) would agree or disagree
with Russell’s approach.

Set B

Clarify what the two components (words
and context) Wittgenstein identifies as
components of a language game and
illustrate and clarify this with your own
example of a language game

Wittgenstein claims language does more
than simply make claims about existing
objects in the world. Explain how
language games point this out and explain
why another philosophy we have read
(Russell, Austin, or Ryle) would agree or
disagree with this claim.

Set C

Define and explain what a speech act is
according to Austin. Present your own
example of a speech act and clarify why it
is a speech act.

Austin claims that there are many uses of
language and focuses on speech acts.
Explain the idea behind this and discuss
whether another philosophy we have read
(Russell, Wittgenstein, or Ryle) would
agree with Austin’s claim and why.

Set D

Ryle claims we should focus on ordinary
language as opposed to non-standard
language. Explain this distinction and
give your own example that illustrates the

Ryle’s focus in on the use of language in
ordinary contexts. Explain what he claims
this shows about language. Consider
another philosophy we have read
(Russell, Austin, or Austin), and present
an explanation of why they would agree
with the approach taken by Ryle.

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