Part 1 To what does “Clovis First” refer? From a Central Andean, and more generally a South American perspective, what is your evaluation and reply to the Clovis First argument? Be sure to discuss dating, making it clear how interpretation of the chronology is effected by calibration of dates (and by the difference between BP and BC dates). Part 2 The Central Andes is one of about half a dozen world regions where archaic civilization developed through entirely local processes. Your professor has argued that the foundations of Andean civilization were established quite early in Central Andean culture history, but society continued to evolve greater complexity throughout its history. Considering the Middle Preceramic through Early Horizon, what are the key processes that were involved? How did these processes relate to one another? How was the natural environment implicated, and human modifications of the environment? Did city life and state government develop at Caral, as asserted by Dr. Ruth Shady? Discuss the relevant evidence and interpretations. Consider as well how information from ethnohistory and ethnography assist archaeologists in understanding the past.
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